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雅思阅读快速定位方法

已有 151 次阅读2017-9-16 16:39 |个人分类:考试培训|系统分类:雅思| 雅思, 定位

雅思阅读的模式:

模式1:从全文来看
文章首段是对全文主题的概括性的阐述。从第二段开始,每段讨论全文主题下的一个分支主题有时候会进行必要的铺垫,最后在末段重生主题。末端偶尔会阐述研究意义,或者对之前之进行展望。
模式2:从任意段落来看
    段落的主题通常都是在段落考前的句子中提出,余下的句子则通过罗列具体论据的方式进行详细阐述。偶尔在段落末句对全文进行再一次的总结。

考察内容:主题和细节。
对于一篇1000字左右的文章而言,快速在文章中定位涉及问题的语句无疑是答题的关键。在能够正确理解文章和段落主题的前提下,考察主题的题目是非常容易完成的;而由于段落细节与段落主题之间有着不可忽略的关联性,所以细节题可以通过段落主题快速定位至段落,从而有效的缩小搜索范围。


让我们通过一个生活中的例子来了解段落主题的作用。
一下是购物中心各个楼层的分布图,以及与之对应的13个问题。

楼层
主题
细节
F6
餐饮
真功夫、麦当劳、大长今、肯德基、俏江南、小东北…
F5
娱乐
万达影院、大玩家电玩、溜冰、麦乐迪KTV…
F4
电子、电器
电视机、洗衣机、电脑、相机
F3
休闲、运动
Jeans West、Giordano、Nike、Anta、Puma…
F2
男装
CK、D&G、G2000、Playboy
F1
女装、化妆品
Channel、BurberryArmani、Lancôme
B1
超市
果蔬、日用品、厨房用品、床上用品


问题1-5
请问下列商品在哪个楼层可以买到?
1. 手机
2. 白菜
3. T恤
4. 手表
5. 香奈儿

这5到题目实际上相当于雅思阅读的段落-信息“匹配题”。这种题目的目的并不是让我们逐行在文中寻找细节,而是通过确定细节与主题的关联快速确定答案。

问题6-10
请匹配售货员与其所售商品


6. 手机                       
7. 白菜
8. T恤
9. 手表
10. 电影票   

A.  王五
B.  张三
C.  李四
D.  刘二
E.  赵六

以上5个题目相当于雅思阅读“人名/地名---信息”匹配题。首先,通过商品细节与商品分类的关联来到正确楼层,再与相应段落寻找人名。

问题11-13
请判断一下描述为:T/F/NG
11.东北大米售价低于泰国香米
12.龙湖时代天街的一位股东是上海人
13.王菲即将献身后天的《加勒比海盗5》的首映礼

     以上三个题目相当于雅思阅读的判断题。显然题目的定位方式是分别利用题目中的米、股东和首映礼来到相应楼层再进行下一步的继续定位和判断。
雅思主题句常见的位置
段落首句
在雅思阅读文章中,绝大部分的段落主题句是位于段落首句。这也符合西方人“先总后分”、“先抽象后具体”的写作思维。
例:
Research has shown that there is a geneticor inherited element to handedness. While left-handedness tends to run infamilies, neither left nor right handers will automatically produce offspringwith the same handedness; in fact, about 6 per cent of children with tworight-handed parents will be left-handed. However, among two left-handedparents, perhaps 40 per cent of the children will also be left-handed. With oneright and one left-handed parent, 15 to 20 per cent of the offspring will beleft-handed. Even among identical twins who have the same genes, one in sixpairs will differ in their handedness.
解析:以上段落的首句中指出“基因,或者称为遗传,是造成用手习惯的因素之一”,而下文用具体数据罗列了父母左撇子比例与子女左撇子的比例。也就是说,从第2句开始到本段末句,都是在段落首句进行展开和进一步解释。

段落次句
段落次句作为主题句的情况大约是20%左右。但是在阅读过程中,认定段落次句式主题句有以下三个依据:
①段落说句是问句。
②段落首句是过渡句。
③段落次句表转折。

1.段落首句是疑问句时,段落词句是真正主题
疑问句基本上不可能成为段落主题句。
谓语段落首句位置的疑问句通常都是设问类型,属于自问自答形式,因此次句内容中的回答才是真正的段落主题。

例:
What then makes people left-handed if it isnot simply genetic? Other factors must be at work and researchers have turnedto the brain for clues. In the 1860s the French surgeon and anthropologist, Dr.Paul Broca, made the remarkable finding that patients who had lost their powersof speech as a result of a stoke ( a blood clot in the brain) had paralysis ofthe right half of their body. He noted that since the left hemisphere of thebrain controls the right half of the body, and vice versa, the brain damagemust have been in the brain’s left hemisphere. Psychologists now believe thatamong right-handed people, probably 95 percent have their language center inthe left hemisphere, while 5 per cent have right-sided language. Left-handers,however, do not show the reverse pattern but instead a majority also have theirlanguage in the left hemisphere. Some 30 per cent have right hemispherelanguage.
解析:以上段落首句以疑问句的形式提出除了基因之外还有什么原因导致左撇子的形成,这个问题,而紧接着第2句就回答到“大脑”。因此,本段主题应该将大脑对左撇子形成的影响。下文中则用Dr PaulBroca 的研究结论对该主题进行验证和阐述。


2.段落首句是过渡句时,需要关注段落次句。
过渡句的判定:
①段落句内容核心与上端主题内容重合
②段落首句中含有“not only”、“not simply”、“besides”、“beyond”等表达“不仅…”或者“除了…还有…”的词汇
③段落首句中含有“this”、“these”等代词
B   For much ofrecent Western history, health has been viewed in the physical sense only. Thatis , good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of hebody, while will health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine.Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness andis seen in medical terms. According to this view, creating health for peoplemeans providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. Duringthis period, there was an emphasis on providing clear water, improvedsanitation and housing.

C   In the late1940s the World Health Organization challenged this physically and medicallyoriented view of health. They stated that “health is a complete state ofphysical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence ofdisease”(WHO, 1946) . Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/ spirit)and not just in physical terms.

解析:C段首句中的“this physicallyand medically”对应B段首句中的“physicalsense”,因此应该被视为连接B、C两段的过渡句,则C段次句为真正主题句。

3.段落次句与首句形成转折时,也许要关注段落次句
作者的某些观点的成立,需要以推翻其他观点为前提。此时,被推翻的观点只能出现在作者观点之前。因此,如果段落次句式转折性表达,应该引起注意。
当然,也并非所有转折的内容都是与前句相反,有时也可以是对前句内容的补充,这一点类似中文中的递进。
常用的转折关系词有:
Although
Despite
But
Even though
However
On the contrary
While
Nevertheless
Yet


例:
Technical solutions can reduce thepollution problem and increase the fuel efficiency of engines. But fuelconsumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred bycustomers and how they are driven. Many people buy larger cars than they needfor daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively. Besides, global caruse is increasing at a faster rate than the improvement in emissions and fuelefficiency which technology is now making possible.

解析:
次句“but”开头,因此关注次句。从第3句开始对“燃油消耗和为其排放主要取决于顾客对车辆的选择及其驾驶方式”这个主题进一步展开论述。

下段过渡句
命题者有时候会把某段的主题句写得非常的晦涩,然后再后面一段首句中放过度内容,介词考察识别过渡句、进而通过段落关联理解较高难度的段落主题的能力。
例:
A  Yet there is adark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s populationstill suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancientGreeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiteratedin November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinkingwater; some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services.Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 childrenevery day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind inefforts to solve the problems.

B  The consequencesof our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millionsof people have been forced to move from their homes---- often with littlewarning or compensation ---- to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. Morethan 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered becausedams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystemswhere they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrades soil quality andreduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers are being pumped downfaster than they are naturally replenished… in parts of India, China, the USAand elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violenceand continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

解析:A段主题句较长。B段的句首中含有常用的过度表达“beyond”,句意“我们的用水政策所抵赖的后果远远不止是对健康的破坏”,所以B段应该是将对健康以外的其他方面的影响。

确定主题句关键词
    了解主题句的位置后,接下来的工作就是对主题句内容进行合理理解,进而提炼出核心内容并加以标记,过滤掉周边内容,以便在做题是能够最迅速地找到与题目相关主题及其所在段落。
下面是提炼主题句关键词的方式和依据:
数名词
主题句内容需要在段落细节中展开,而抽象复数名词是最容易在下文展开的内容“抽象”内容经常在下文被“具体化”,而“复数”名词也很容易在下文中被一一罗列。
作者的评价性表达
作者通过文章来表明自己对某个事物的看法,而评价表达真实表达观点的最重要的手段之一。因此,评价性表达本身是主题句的重要内容。
但是,需要进一步找到被评价的内容主题,才算完整。
话题转换词(段落间的并列结构)
一篇文章虽然只有一个中心主题,但其中必然有若干分支主题分别位于不同段落中。通常这些分支主题之间都是并列关系。一个新段落的首句中若含有某些词汇来表明话题转换,则可证明该句式主题句,而转换出的新话题真实主题句的核心内容。
常用的话题转换词有:
First
Second
Next
Furthermore
Other
Another
Also
As well, too
Alternatively

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