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GMAT句子改错中的平行结构

已有 53 次阅读2017-10-11 14:43 |系统分类:其它考试

平行结构是大多数英语语法书都会涉及到的版块,按理来说属于语法当中比较基础、相对简单的语法知识;但是,它却是GMAT语法考试当中的重要考点。有些句子的结构并不属于绝对的语法错误,而是在语言的流畅性和节奏感上失去了一定的美感。像这种非绝对性的句子问题,是最容易被考生所疏忽的。我们来看下面这个句子:

The employees were upset by the company's low pay, poor working conditions, and they did not have enough outlets for their creativity.

这个句子没有主谓一致、时态或者搭配上的问题,意义也比较完整、符合逻辑。但会让人觉得,and破坏了与 the company's low pay, poor working conditions 之间的连贯性。因此在GMAT考试当中,这个句子会被判错。可以像这样修改:

The employees were upset by the company's low pay, poor working conditions, and shortage of outlets for employees' creativity.

平行结构值得关注的几个问题:
1. 从句的并列
从句的并列最容易出现的问题是,在重复从句时缺失句子成分,例如:
I want to retire to a place WHERE I can relax AND I pay low taxes.
Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO are popular AND WHO are not.

正确的写法应该是:
I want to retire to a place WHERE I can relax AND WHERE I pay low taxes.
Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO are popular AND THOSE WHO are not.

2. 动名词的并列
动名词在普通语法当中并不是复杂的概念,很多学生也都明白,动名词就当名词处理就可以了。但在GMAT当中,动名词是有讲究的。
Tracking satellites accurately is important for the space agency.
The accurate tracking of satellites is important for the space agency.
这两个句子都使用了动名词,但第一个句子叫做简单动名词,第二个句子叫做复杂动名词,它们最明显的区别就在有没有冠词上。在GMAT当中,简单动名词一定不可以和复杂动名词并列。
比如:
I enjoyed drinking the water AND the wine tasting.
这个句子就是将简单动名词和复杂动名词进行并列。因此,可以改为以下的形式:
I enjoyed drinking the water AND tasting the wine.

3. 表面平行与真实平行
判断一个句子是否需要使用平行结构,以及使用怎样的平行结构,需要依据句子的逻辑意思,而不是仅仅制造出来一个平行的形式。
Sal applied himself in his new job, arriving early every day, skipping lunch regularly, AND leaving late every night.
Sal applied himself in his new job, arrived early every day, skipped lunch regularly, AND left late every night.
这两个句子都使用了平行结构,但到底哪个是正确的呢?
第一个句子当中并列的是动词的现在分词,在句子当中做伴随状语,和主句之间是逻辑上的因果关系和时间上的先后关系,因此这个句子想表达的意思是:她为了适应新的工作,每天很早到办公室,时常会错过午饭,晚上也很晚才下班。
而第二个句子当中并列的是谓语,几个谓语之间并没有主次之分,因此所表示的动作彼此之间并没有紧密的联系:她去适应新工作;她每天很早到达;她时常不吃午饭;她每天都加班;


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